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Monday, October 29, 2012

World Time Zones


World Time Zones Map. In the center of the map is the UTC (Universal Time Coordinated) Time Zone also known as GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)

World Time Zones Map
Daylight Saving Time Map
Solar Time vs Standard Time
Time Zones Map
Time Zones
Photo courtesy


Until 1972 all time zones were specified as an offset from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), which was the mean solar time at the meridian passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London. Since 1972 all official time services have broadcast radio time signals synchronized to UTC, a form of atomic time that includes leap seconds to keep it within 0.9 seconds of this former GMT, now called UT1. Many countries now legally define their standard time relative to UTC, although some still legally refer to GMT, including the United Kingdom itself. UTC, also called Zulu time, is used everywhere on Earth by astronomers and others who need to state the time of an event unambiguously.

Time zones are based on Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), the mean solar time at longitude 0° (the Prime Meridian). The time derived from atomic clocks is adjusted because the rate of rotation of the Earth is not constant. In January 1972 Coordinated Universal Time was introduced with the length of the second equal to the second of atomic time. The readings of atomic clocks are averaged to give a uniform time scale.

Because the length of the average day is currently 0.002 second more than 24 hours of atomic time, leap seconds are periodically inserted into Coordinated Universal Time to make it approximate to UT1. Because the Earth's rotation is gradually slowing, leap seconds will need to be added more frequently in the future. However, from one year to the next the rotation rate is slightly irregular, so leap seconds are not added unless observations of Earth's rotation show that one is needed. In this way, local times will continue to stay close to mean solar time and the effects of variations in Earth's rotation rate will be confined to simple step changes relative to the uniform time scale (International Atomic Time or TAI). All local times differ from TAI by an integral number of seconds. With the implementation of UTC, nations began to use it in the definition of their time zones. As of 2005, most nations had altered the definition of local time in this way. British Summer Time (BST) is still one hour in advance of Greenwich Mean Time and is therefore approximately equal to UTC+1. Thus Greenwich Mean Time is the local time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich between 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in October and 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March. Similar circumstances apply in many other places.

Leap seconds are considered by many to be a nuisance, and ways to abolish them are being considered. This means letting the time difference accumulate. One suggestion is to insert a "leap-hour" in about 5,000 years.

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